Dedoose Publications


Dedoose has been field-tested and journal-proven by leading academic institutions and market researchers worldwide. Thousands of prominent researchers across the US and abroad have benefited from early versions of Dedoose in their qualitative and mixed methods work and have laid an outstanding publication and report trail along the way.

Education Based Publications

Managing Data in CAQDAS

Fielding, Nigel & Lee, Ray M. (1998)

Chapter 4 in Fielding & Lee, Computer Analysis and Qualitative Research, pp. 86-118

from COMPUTER ASSISTED QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS SOFTWARE: A PRACTICAL PERSPECTIVE FOR APPLIED RESEARCH, JOSEPH B. BAUGH, ANNE SABER HALLCOM, and MARILYN E. HARRIS Computer assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS) holds a chequered reputation to date in academia, but can be useful to develop performance metrics in the field of corporate social and environmental responsibility and other areas of contemporary business. Proponents of using CAQDAS cite its ability to save time and effort in data management by extending the ability of the researcher to organize, track and manage data. Opponents decry the lack of rigor and robustness in the resultant analyses. Research reveals that these opinions tend to be divided by “the personal biography and the philosophical stance of the analyst” (Catterall & Maclaran, 1998, p. 207), as well as “age, computer literacy, and experience as a qualitative researcher” (Mangabeira, Lee & Fielding, 2004, p. 170). A more recent article (Atherton & Elsmore 2007) discussed the continuing debate on CAQDAS in qualitative research: The two perspectives both indicate that CAQDAS should be used with care and consideration; in ways that explicitly demonstrate a “fit” between the ethos and philosophical perspective(s) underpinning a research study, on the one hand, and the means of ordering and manipulating the data within CAQDAS on the other. (p. 75) Despite the ongoing literary debate on the merits of CAQDAS, the use of computer-aided qualitative data analysis has become acceptable to most qualitative researchers (Lee & Esterhuizen; Morison & Moir, 1998; Robson, 2002). However, writers advise that researchers avoid the trap of letting the software control the data analysis (Catterall & Maclaran, 1998). Morison and Moir counseled that CAQDAS is merely one tool in the qualitative data analysis toolbox. No tool should replace the researcher's capacity to think through the data and develop his or her emergent conclusions (Atherton & Elsmore, 2007). On the other hand, Morison and Moir among others (e.g., Blank, 2004; Catterall & Maclaran, 1998; Mangabeira et al., 2004) found the use of qualitative data analysis software can also free up significant amounts of time formerly used in data management and encoding allowing the researcher to spend more time in deeper and richer data evaluation. Qualitative research studies to develop performance metrics can create huge amounts of raw data (Miles & Huberman, 1994; Robson, 2002). Organizing, tracking, encoding, and managing the data are not trivial tasks and the effort should not be underestimated by the applied researcher. Two methodologies exist to handle these activities and manage the data during the data analysis phase. The first methodology is a manual process, which must be done at times to avoid missing critical evidence and provide trustworthiness in the process (Malterud, 2001), while the second methodology indicates the use of technology for managing the data and avoid being overwhelmed by the sheer amount of raw data (Lee & Esterhuizen, 2000). It is the experience of the authors that some manual processing must be interspersed with CAQDAS. This provides an intimacy with the data which leads to the drawing of credible and defensible conclusions. Thus, a mixed approach that melds manual and automated data analyses seems most appropriate. A basic approach for applying traditional qualitative research methodologies lies in the ability of CAQDAS to support data reduction through the use of a “provisional start list” (Miles & Huberman, 1994, p. 58) of data codes that are often developed manually from the research question. A rise in the use of CAQDAS for applied research and other nonacademic research fields has been identified (Fielding & Lee, 2002). Since CAQDAS is becoming more prevalent in nonacademic researcher populations and can be useful for developing performance metrics for corporate social and environmental responsibility and solving other complex business issues, it seems prudent at this juncture to discuss how to use the software appropriately rather than rehash the argument for or against using CAQDAS. Selection of and training with an appropriate CAQDAS package can help the researcher manage the mountains of data derived from qualitative research data collection methods (Lee & Esterhuizen, 2000).
Education Based Publications

Paradigms Lost and Pragmatism Regained: Methodological Implications of Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

Morgan, D. L. (2007)

Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(1): 48-76

This article examines several methodological issues associated with combining qualitative and quantitative methods by comparing the increasing interest in this topic with the earlier renewal of interest in qualitative research during the 1980s. Background on the emergence of mixed method research approaches and suggestions for guiding paradigm shift toward 'pragmatic' approaches in social science research.
Education Based Publications

Photo Interviews: Eliciting Data through Conversations with Children

Cappello, Marva (2005)

Field Methods, 17(2): 170-182

Photo interviewing is a useful method for qualitative and mixed methods inquiry in classrooms and with children. The idea of photo elicitation is especially relevant when interviewing children who have preset ideas about interacting with adults. Interviewing children is complicated by the school setting, in which children perceive the researcher to be some sort of teacher. This study explores the potential of photo interviewing to get around these problems, with data from one study of children’s perceptions about classroom writing. When conducting photo elicitation interviews (PEI), researchers introduce photographs into the interview context. Although PEI has been employed across a wide variety of disciplines and participants, little has been written about the use of photographs in interviews with children. In 'Photo Elicitation Interview (PEI): Using Photos to Elicit Children's Perspectives,' by Iris Epstein, a Bonnie Stevens, Patricia McKeever, and Sylvain Baruchel, the authors review the use of PEI in a research study that explored the perspectives on camp of children with cancer. In particular, they review some of the methodological and ethical challenges, including (a) who should take the photographs and (b) how the photographs should be integrated into the interview. Although some limitations exist, PEI in its various forms can challenge participants, trigger memory, lead to new perspectives, and assist with building trust and rapport.
Education Based Publications

Mixed Methods Sampling - A Typology with Examples

Teddlie, Charles, & Yu, Fen (2007)

Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(1): 77-100

Discusses mixed methods sampling techniques in creative and effective ways.
Education Based Publications

Measures of Interobserver Agreement: Calculation Formulas and Distribution Effects

House, Alvin E., House, Betty J., & Campbell, Martha B. (1981)

Calculation formulas and distribution effects Journal of Behavioral Assessment, 3(1): 37-57

Discusses issues, types, and calculations for inter-rater reliability. Seventeen measures of association for observer reliability (interobserver agreement) are reviewed and computational forumals are given in a common notational system. An empirical comparison of 10 of these measures is made over a range of potential reliability check results.
Education Based Publications

Mapping the Field of Mixed Methods Research

Creswell, John W. (2009)

Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 3(2), 95-108

Terrific survey of what’s happening in the mixed methods literature and mixed methods field. Discusses a range of topics raised at the 2008 Mixed Methods Conference and provides a “Map” of these topics broken out across 5 domains: philosophical/theoretical, techniques, nature of mixed methods, the adoption and use of mixed methods, and the politicization of mixed methods. Concludes with a discussion of incorporating mixed methods into other designs, paradigms, general design issues, and advocacy through extramural funding.
Medical Based Publications

A Mixed Methods Investigation of Mixed Methods Sampling Designs in Social and Health Science Research

Collins, Kathleen M. T., Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J., & Jiao, Qun G. (2007)

Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(3), 267-294

Presents a two-dimensional model (time orientation—concurrent vs. sequential and the relationship between the qualitative and quantitative samples—identical, nested, multilevel, and parallel) for classifying mixed methods studies sampling designs. Presents and discusses findings from the distribution of 121 studies into the model and the relative appropriateness of the employed strategy.
Education Based Publications

Introduction to Mixed Method and Mixed Model Studies in the Social and Behavioral Sciences: Paradigm Wars and Mixed Methodologies.

Tashakkori, Abbas & Teddlie, Charles (1998)

A. Tashakkori & C. Teddlie, Mixed Methodology: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, pp. 20-39.

Encourages a focus on the research question as a guide to deciding on methods to apply in a particular study and comfort in cross the boundaries between pure interpretations of particular paradigmatic characteristics. Describes the nature and limitation of various mono-methods. Suggests that incorporating a pragmatic approach with a variety of appropriate methods helps gain a broader and more comprehensive perspective on the research question.
Education Based Publications

Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research: How is it Done?

Bryman, Alan (2006)

Qualitative Research, 6(1), 97-113

This article seeks to move beyond typologies of the ways in which quantitative and qualitative research are integrated to an examination of the ways that they are combined in practice. Draws on a content analysis of methods and design from 232 articles using combined methods. Examine and discusses the rationales provide for employing mixed-methods and whether they correspond to actual practice.
Education Based Publications

Research Design Issues for Mixed Method and Mixed Model Studies

Tashakkori, Abbas & Teddlie, Charles (1998)

A. Tashakkori & C. Teddlie, Mixed Methodology: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, pp. 40-58. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Discusses the concept of triangulation from various perspectives and the variety of approaches to implementing mixed methods research. Builds on Patton’s (1990) discussion of ‘mixed form’ design to a broader model in order to develop a taxonomy for distinguishing various mixed method designs and approaches.
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