Dedoose Publications

PUBLICATIONS

Dedoose has been field-tested and journal-proven by leading academic institutions and market researchers worldwide. Thousands of prominent researchers across the US and abroad have benefited from early versions of Dedoose in their qualitative and mixed methods work and have laid an outstanding publication and report trail along the way.

Education Based Publications

Focus Groups

Morgan, David L. (2004)

S. N. Hesse-Biber and P. Leavy (Eds.), Approaches to Qualitative Research: A Reader on Theory and Practice, pp. 263-285. New York, NY: Oxford University Press

Written by a long-time authority on focus group, presents a brief history of focus group application up to, and including, information on the variety of current uses across many disciplines. Great section on the uses of focus groups in combination with other methods with a full compare/contrast discussion. Finally, goes into the specifics on ‘how to’ plan and conduct effective group data collection. My own preference (Morgan, 1996) is for a more inclusive approach that broadly defines focus groups as a research technique that collects data through group interaction on a topic determined by the researcher. In essence, it is the researcher's interest that provides the focus, whereas the data themselves come from the group interaction. One reason for favoring an inclusive approach is that the exclusive approaches do not really exclude very much. Other than focus groups, the primary categories of group interviews in the existing typologies are things that are manifestly different from focus groups. On the one hand, there are nominal groups and Delphi groups (Stewart & Shamdasani, 1990), which do not involve actual group interaction. On the other hand, there is the observation of naturally occurring groups, which typically do not involve the researcher in determining the topic of discussion. Thus, little is gained by excluding these categories of data collection because they already fall outside the broad definition of focus groups offered here. Among the more specific criteria that could be used to distinguish focus groups from other types of group interviews, both Frey and Fontana (1989) and Khan and Manderson (1992) assert that focus groups are more formal. In particular, they argue that focus groups are likely to involve inviting participants to the discussion and they also stress the distinctive role of the moderator. Although there is no doubt that group interviews vary along a continuum from more formally structured interaction to more informal gatherings, I do not believe it is possible to draw a line between formal and informal group interviews in a way that defines some as focus groups and others as something else. Instead, I find it more useful to think that the degree of formal structure in a focus group is a decision that the research makes according to the specific purposes of the research project. In particular, the use of either a more formal or a less formal approach will depend on the researcher's goals, the nature of the research setting, and the likely reaction of the participants to the research topic. Among the other criteria that have been offered as distinguishing features of focus groups are their size and the use of specialized facilities for the interview (McQuarrie, 1996). Again, however, these supposedly exclusive criteria are mostly a matter of degree. Who is to say when a group is too large or too small to be called a focus group or when a setting is too casual to qualify? Rather than generate pointless debates about what is or is not a focus group, I prefer to treat focus groups as a "broad umbrella" or "big tent" that can include many different variations. Of course, this approach requires researchers to make choices about doing focus groups one way rather than another. Fortunately, this need to make explicit decisions about data collection strategies is a familiar concern to social scientists, and it comes under the heading of "research design." As social scientists have gained increasing experience with focus groups, we also have produced insights into the situations in which different research designs are either more or less likely to be effective (e.g., Krueger, 1993; Morgan, 1992.a, 1995).
Education Based Publications

Unleashing Frankenstein’s Monster? The Use of Computers in Qualitative Research.

Hesse-Biber, Sharlene (2004)

H. R. Bernard (Ed.), Handbook of Methods in Cultural Anthropology, pp. 549-593. In S. N. Hesse-Biber and P. Leavy (Eds.), Approaches to Qualitative Research: A Reader on Theory and Practice, pp. 535-545.

The use of qualitative data analysis software has been increasing in recent years. A number of qualitative researchers have raised questions concerning the effect of such software in the research process. Fears have been expressed that the use of the computer for qualitative analysis may interfere with the relationship between the researcher and the research process itself by distancing the researcher from both the data and the respondent. Others have suggested that the use of a quantitative tool, the computer, would lead to data dredging, quantification of results, and loss of the "art" of qualitative analysis. In this study of 12 qualitative researchers, including both faculty members and graduate students, we have found that these fears are exaggerated. Users of qualitative data analysis software in most cases use the computer as an organizational, time-saving tool and take special care to maintain close relationships with both the data and the respondents. It is an open question, however, whether or not the amount of time and effort saved by the computer enhance research creativity. The research findings are mixed in this area. At issue is the distinction between creativity and productivity when computer methods are used. Computer packages targeted at qualitative and mixed methods research data are readily available and the methodology sections of research articles indicate that they are being utilised by some health researchers. The purpose of this article is to draw together concerns which have been expressed by researchers and critics and to place these within the perspective of 'framing' (MacLachlan & Reid, 1994). Here, the focus becomes the frame that these computer programs impose on qualitative data. Inevitably, all data sets are disturbed by the techniques of collection and the conceptual and theoretical frames imposed, but computer framing not only distorts physically but also imposes an often minimally acknowledged frame constructed by the metaphors and implicit ideology of the program. This frame is in opposition to most of the recent changes in qualitative data interpretation, which have emphasized context, thick description and exposure of the minimally disturbed voices of participants.
Education Based Publications

A Systems Approach to Qualitative Data Management and Analysis

MacQueen, Kathleen M. & Milstein, Bobby (1999)

Field Methods, 11(1): 27-39

Introduces and illustrates a systematic approach to qualitative data management from a database architecture perspective. Discusses four main types of information collected in qualitative research: information about primary sources, information from primary sources, secondary information generated by coders, and information about the coders and how quantitative approaches can be used to evaluate qualitative analysis.
Education Based Publications

Interobserver Agreement, Reliability, and Generalizability of Data Collected in Observational Studies

Mitchell, Sandra K. (1979)

Psychological Bulletin, 86(2): 376-390

Research in developmental and educational psychology has come to rely less on conventional psychometric tests and more on records of behavior made by human observers in natural and quasi-natural settings. Discusses reliability and generalizability in terms of coefficients that reflect the "quality" of data, what defines quality data, and how reports of agreement are insufficient.
Education Based Publications

A Framework for the Study

Creswell, John W. (1994)

J. W. Creswell, Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, pp. 1-19.

How do you decide whether to use a qualitative or a quantitative approach for the design of a research study? How do you write up the results of a study for a scholarly journal article or dissertation? This book addresses these issues by providing a guide to major design decisions, such as deciding a paradigm, stating a purpose for the study, identifying the research questions and hypotheses, using theory, and defining and stating the significance of the study. Research Design is aimed at upper division to graduate level research methods courses that are taught to prepare students to plan and write up independent research studies. In the past two decades, research approaches have multiplied to a point at which investigators or inquirers have many choices. For those designing a proposal or plan, I recommend that a general framework be adopted to provide guidance about all facets of the study, from assessing the general philosophical ideas behind the inquiry to the detailed data collection and analysis procedures. Using an extant framework also allows researchers to lodge their plans in ideas well grounded in the literature and recognized by audiences (e.g., faculty committees) that read and support proposals for research. What frameworks exist for designing a proposal? Although different types and terms abound In the literature, I will focus on three: quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods approaches. 'The first has been available to the social and human scientist for years, the second has emerged primarily during the last three or four decades, and the last is new and still developing in form and substance. This chapter introduces the reader to the three approaches to research. I suggest that to understand them, the proposal developer needs to consider three framework elements: philosophical assumptions about what constitutes knowledge claims; general procedures of research called strategies of inquhy and detailed procedures of data collection, analysis, and writing. called methods. Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches frame each of these elements differently, and these defiances are identified and discussed in this chapter. 'Then typical scenarios that combine the three elements are advanced, followed by the reasons why one would choose one approach over another in designing a study. 'This discussion will not be a philosophical treatise on the nature of knowledge, but it will provide a practical grounding in some of the philosophical ideas behind research.
Education Based Publications

Mapping the Field of Mixed Methods Research

Creswell, John W. (2009)

Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 3(2), 95-108

Terrific survey of what’s happening in the mixed methods literature and mixed methods field. Discusses a range of topics raised at the 2008 Mixed Methods Conference and provides a “Map” of these topics broken out across 5 domains: philosophical/theoretical, techniques, nature of mixed methods, the adoption and use of mixed methods, and the politicization of mixed methods. Concludes with a discussion of incorporating mixed methods into other designs, paradigms, general design issues, and advocacy through extramural funding.
Education Based Publications

Developing Data Analysis

Silverman, David (2005)

Doing Qualitative Research, 2nd Edition (pp. 171-187)

Provides a step-by-step guide to all the questions students ask when beginning their first research project. Silverman demonstrates how to learn the craft of qualitative research by applying knowledge about different methods to actual data. He provides practical advice on key issues such as defining ‘originality’ and narrowing down a topic, keeping a research diary and writing a research report, and presenting research to different audiences.
Education Based Publications

Techniques to Identify Themes

W., & Bernard, H. Russell (2003)

Field Methods, 15(1): 85-109

Theme identification is one of the most fundamental tasks in qualitative research. It also is one of the most mysterious. Explicit descriptions of theme discovery are rarely found in articles and reports, and when they are, they are often relegated to appendices or footnotes. Techniques are shared among small groups of social scientists, but sharing is impeded by disciplinary or epistemological boundaries. This is a wonderful guide to describing and identifying themes in qualitative research.
Education Based Publications

Managing Data in CAQDAS

Fielding, Nigel & Lee, Ray M. (1998)

Chapter 4 in Fielding & Lee, Computer Analysis and Qualitative Research, pp. 86-118

from COMPUTER ASSISTED QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS SOFTWARE: A PRACTICAL PERSPECTIVE FOR APPLIED RESEARCH, JOSEPH B. BAUGH, ANNE SABER HALLCOM, and MARILYN E. HARRIS Computer assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS) holds a chequered reputation to date in academia, but can be useful to develop performance metrics in the field of corporate social and environmental responsibility and other areas of contemporary business. Proponents of using CAQDAS cite its ability to save time and effort in data management by extending the ability of the researcher to organize, track and manage data. Opponents decry the lack of rigor and robustness in the resultant analyses. Research reveals that these opinions tend to be divided by “the personal biography and the philosophical stance of the analyst” (Catterall & Maclaran, 1998, p. 207), as well as “age, computer literacy, and experience as a qualitative researcher” (Mangabeira, Lee & Fielding, 2004, p. 170). A more recent article (Atherton & Elsmore 2007) discussed the continuing debate on CAQDAS in qualitative research: The two perspectives both indicate that CAQDAS should be used with care and consideration; in ways that explicitly demonstrate a “fit” between the ethos and philosophical perspective(s) underpinning a research study, on the one hand, and the means of ordering and manipulating the data within CAQDAS on the other. (p. 75) Despite the ongoing literary debate on the merits of CAQDAS, the use of computer-aided qualitative data analysis has become acceptable to most qualitative researchers (Lee & Esterhuizen; Morison & Moir, 1998; Robson, 2002). However, writers advise that researchers avoid the trap of letting the software control the data analysis (Catterall & Maclaran, 1998). Morison and Moir counseled that CAQDAS is merely one tool in the qualitative data analysis toolbox. No tool should replace the researcher's capacity to think through the data and develop his or her emergent conclusions (Atherton & Elsmore, 2007). On the other hand, Morison and Moir among others (e.g., Blank, 2004; Catterall & Maclaran, 1998; Mangabeira et al., 2004) found the use of qualitative data analysis software can also free up significant amounts of time formerly used in data management and encoding allowing the researcher to spend more time in deeper and richer data evaluation. Qualitative research studies to develop performance metrics can create huge amounts of raw data (Miles & Huberman, 1994; Robson, 2002). Organizing, tracking, encoding, and managing the data are not trivial tasks and the effort should not be underestimated by the applied researcher. Two methodologies exist to handle these activities and manage the data during the data analysis phase. The first methodology is a manual process, which must be done at times to avoid missing critical evidence and provide trustworthiness in the process (Malterud, 2001), while the second methodology indicates the use of technology for managing the data and avoid being overwhelmed by the sheer amount of raw data (Lee & Esterhuizen, 2000). It is the experience of the authors that some manual processing must be interspersed with CAQDAS. This provides an intimacy with the data which leads to the drawing of credible and defensible conclusions. Thus, a mixed approach that melds manual and automated data analyses seems most appropriate. A basic approach for applying traditional qualitative research methodologies lies in the ability of CAQDAS to support data reduction through the use of a “provisional start list” (Miles & Huberman, 1994, p. 58) of data codes that are often developed manually from the research question. A rise in the use of CAQDAS for applied research and other nonacademic research fields has been identified (Fielding & Lee, 2002). Since CAQDAS is becoming more prevalent in nonacademic researcher populations and can be useful for developing performance metrics for corporate social and environmental responsibility and solving other complex business issues, it seems prudent at this juncture to discuss how to use the software appropriately rather than rehash the argument for or against using CAQDAS. Selection of and training with an appropriate CAQDAS package can help the researcher manage the mountains of data derived from qualitative research data collection methods (Lee & Esterhuizen, 2000).
Education Based Publications

Integrating Data Analysis in Mixed Methods Research

Bazeley, Patricia (2009)

Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 3(3), 203-207

Encourages a thinking about mixed methods work based on a qualitative-quantitative continuum. Focuses primarily on strategy for mixed methods data analysis at various stages of the process rather than just integration at the end. Discusses the use of computer solutions to assist in the process. Although the epistemological arguments of the "paradigm wars" sharpened our thinking about issues related to mixed methodology, their lingering legacy has been to slow the progress of integration methods.
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