Dedoose Publications

PUBLICATIONS

Dedoose has been field-tested and journal-proven by leading academic institutions and market researchers worldwide. Thousands of prominent researchers across the US and abroad have benefited from early versions of Dedoose in their qualitative and mixed methods work and have laid an outstanding publication and report trail along the way.

Education Based Publications

Research Design Issues for Mixed Method and Mixed Model Studies

Tashakkori, Abbas & Teddlie, Charles (1998)

A. Tashakkori & C. Teddlie, Mixed Methodology: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, pp. 40-58

Discusses the concept of triangulation from various perspectives and the variety of approaches to implementing mixed methods research. Builds on Patton’s (1990) discussion of ‘mixed form’ design to a broader model in order to develop a taxonomy for distinguishing various mixed method designs and approaches.
Sociology Based Publications

Qualitative Data Analysis

Seidel, John V. (1998)

Qualis Research

This is an essay on the basic processes in qualitative and mixed methods data analysis (QDA). It serves two purposes. It is a simple introduction for the newcomer of QDA. QDA is a process of noticing, collecting and thinking about interesting things. The purpose of this model is to show that there is asimple foundation to the complex and rigorous practice of QDA. Once you grasp this foundation you can move in many different directions. The idea for this model came from a conversation with one of my former teachers, Professor Ray Cuzzort. Ray was teaching an undergraduate statistics course and wanted to boil down the complexity of statistics to a simple model. His solution was to tell the students that statistics was a symphony based on two notes: means and standard deviations. I liked the simplicity and elegance of his formulation and decided to try and come up with a similar idea for describing QDA. The result was the idea that QDA is a symphony based on three notes: Noticing, Collecting, and Thinkingabout interesting things. While there is great diversity in the practice of QDA I would argue that all forms of QDA are based on these three “notes.” The QDA process is not linear. When you do QDA you do not simply Notice, Collect, and then Think about things, and then write a report. Rather, the process has the following characteristics: -Iterative and Progressive: The process is iterative and progressive because it is a cycle that keeps repeating. For example, when you are thinking about things you also start noticing new things in the data. You then collect and think about these new things. In principle the process is an infinite spiral. -Recursive: The process is recursive because one part can call you back to a previous part. For example, while you are busy collecting things you might simultaneously start noticing new things to collect. -Holographic: The process is holographic in that each step in the process contains the entire process. For example, when you first notice things you are already mentally collecting and thinking about those things. Thus, while there is a simple foundation to QDA, the process of doing qualitative data analysis is complex. The key is to root yourself in this foundation and the rest will flow from this foundation.
Education Based Publications

Qualitative Interviewing

Patton, Michael Quinn (1980)

Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, In Michael Quinn Patton, Qualitative Evaluation Methods, pp. 195-263

We interview people to find out from them those things we cannot directly observe. This issue is not whether observational data are more desireable, valid, or meaningful than self-report data. The fact is tahtw e cannot observe everything. We cannot observe felings, thoughts, intentions, behaviors that took place at some previous point in time, situations that preclude the presence of an observer, or how people have organized the world and the meanings they attach to what goes on in the world. We have to ask people questions about those things. Thus, the purpose of interviewing is to allow us to enter into the other person's perspective. Qualitative interviewing begins with the assumption that the perspective of others is meaningful, knowable, and able to be made explicit. We interview to find out what is in and on someone else's mind, to gather their stories. Program evaluation interviews, for example, aim to capture the perspectives of program participants, staff, and others associated with the program. What does the program look and feel like to the people involved? What are their experiences? What thoughts do people knowledgeable about the program have concerning the program? What are their expectations? What changes do participants perceive in themselves as a result of their involvement in the program? It is the responsibility of the evaluator to provide a framework within which people can respond comfortably, accurately, and honestly to these kinds of questions. Evaluations can enhance the use of qualitative data by generating relevant and high quality findings. As Hermann Sudermann said in Es Lebe das Leben I, ‘I know how to listen when clever men are talking. That is the secret of what you8 call my influence.’ Evaluators must learn how to listen when knowledgeable people are talking. That may be the secret of their influence. An evaluator or qualitative or mixed method research interviewer faces the challenge of making it possible for the person being interviewed to bring the interviewer into his or her world. The quality of the information obtained during an interview is largely dependent on the interviewer. This chapter discusses ways of obtaining high-quality information by talking with people who have that information. We’ll be delving into the ‘art of hearing’ (Rubin and Rubin 1995). This chapter presents three different types of interviews. Later sections consider the content of interviews: what questions to ask and how to phrase questions. The chapter ends with a discussion of how to record the responses obtained during interviews. This chapter emphasizes skill and technique as ways of enhancing the quality of interview data, but no less important is a genuine interest in and caring about the perspectives of other people. If what people have to say about the world is generally boring to you, then you will never be a great interviewer. On the other hand, a deep and genuine interest in learning about people is insufficient without disciplined and rigorous inquiry based on skill and technique.
Education Based Publications

Focus Groups

Morgan, David L. (2004)

S. N. Hesse-Biber and P. Leavy (Eds.), Approaches to Qualitative Research: A Reader on Theory and Practice, pp. 263-285. New York, NY: Oxford University Press

Written by a long-time authority on focus group, presents a brief history of focus group application up to, and including, information on the variety of current uses across many disciplines. Great section on the uses of focus groups in combination with other methods with a full compare/contrast discussion. Finally, goes into the specifics on ‘how to’ plan and conduct effective group data collection. My own preference (Morgan, 1996) is for a more inclusive approach that broadly defines focus groups as a research technique that collects data through group interaction on a topic determined by the researcher. In essence, it is the researcher's interest that provides the focus, whereas the data themselves come from the group interaction. One reason for favoring an inclusive approach is that the exclusive approaches do not really exclude very much. Other than focus groups, the primary categories of group interviews in the existing typologies are things that are manifestly different from focus groups. On the one hand, there are nominal groups and Delphi groups (Stewart & Shamdasani, 1990), which do not involve actual group interaction. On the other hand, there is the observation of naturally occurring groups, which typically do not involve the researcher in determining the topic of discussion. Thus, little is gained by excluding these categories of data collection because they already fall outside the broad definition of focus groups offered here. Among the more specific criteria that could be used to distinguish focus groups from other types of group interviews, both Frey and Fontana (1989) and Khan and Manderson (1992) assert that focus groups are more formal. In particular, they argue that focus groups are likely to involve inviting participants to the discussion and they also stress the distinctive role of the moderator. Although there is no doubt that group interviews vary along a continuum from more formally structured interaction to more informal gatherings, I do not believe it is possible to draw a line between formal and informal group interviews in a way that defines some as focus groups and others as something else. Instead, I find it more useful to think that the degree of formal structure in a focus group is a decision that the research makes according to the specific purposes of the research project. In particular, the use of either a more formal or a less formal approach will depend on the researcher's goals, the nature of the research setting, and the likely reaction of the participants to the research topic. Among the other criteria that have been offered as distinguishing features of focus groups are their size and the use of specialized facilities for the interview (McQuarrie, 1996). Again, however, these supposedly exclusive criteria are mostly a matter of degree. Who is to say when a group is too large or too small to be called a focus group or when a setting is too casual to qualify? Rather than generate pointless debates about what is or is not a focus group, I prefer to treat focus groups as a "broad umbrella" or "big tent" that can include many different variations. Of course, this approach requires researchers to make choices about doing focus groups one way rather than another. Fortunately, this need to make explicit decisions about data collection strategies is a familiar concern to social scientists, and it comes under the heading of "research design." As social scientists have gained increasing experience with focus groups, we also have produced insights into the situations in which different research designs are either more or less likely to be effective (e.g., Krueger, 1993; Morgan, 1992.a, 1995).
Policy Based Publications

Higher Ground: New Hope for the Working Poor and Their Children

Duncan, Greg, Huston, Aletha, & Weisner, Thomas (2007)

New York: Russell Sage Foundation

During the 1990s, growing demands to end chronic welfare dependency culminated in the 1996 federal “welfare-to-work” reforms. But regardless of welfare reform, the United States has always been home to a large population of working poor—people who remain poor even when they work and do not receive welfare. In a concentrated effort to address the problems of the working poor, a coalition of community activists and business leaders in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, launched New Hope, an experimental program that boosted employment among the city’s poor while reducing poverty and improving children’s lives. In Higher Ground, Greg Duncan, Aletha Huston, and Thomas Weisner provide a compelling look at how New Hope can serve as a model for national anti-poverty policies via their qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method research approaches. New Hope was a social contract—not a welfare program—in which participants were required to work a minimum of thirty hours a week in order to be eligible for earnings supplements and health and child care subsidies. All participants had access to career counseling and temporary community service jobs. Drawing on evidence from surveys, public records of employment and earnings, in-depth interviews, and ethnographic observation, Higher Ground tells the story of this ambitious three-year social experiment and evaluates how participants fared relative to a control group. The results were highly encouraging. Poverty rates declined among families that participated in the program. Employment and earnings increased among participants who were not initially working full-time, relative to their counterparts in a control group. For those who had faced just one significant barrier to employment (such as a lack of access to child care or a spotty employment history), these gains lasted years after the program ended. Increased income, combined with New Hope’s subsidies for child care and health care, brought marked improvements to the well-being and development of participants’ children. Enrollment in child care centers increased, and fewer medical needs went unmet. Children performed better in school and exhibited fewer behavioral problems, and gains were particularly dramatic for boys, who are at the greatest risk for poor academic performance and behavioral disorders. As America takes stock of the successes and shortcomings of the Clinton-era welfare reforms, the authors convincingly demonstrate why New Hope could be a model for state and national policies to assist the working poor. Evidence based and insightfully written, Higher Ground illuminates how policymakers can make work pay for families struggling to escape poverty.
Education Based Publications

Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Developmental Science: Uses and ,Methodological Choices

Yoshikawa, H., Weisner, T. S., Kalil, A., & Way, N. (2008)

Developmental Psychology, 44(2): 344-354

Describes and discusses choices for using mixed methods from a practical perspective and discusses common pitfalls and how to aviod them. This article focuses on the ways in which quantitative and qualitative methodologies can be combined to enrich developmental science and the study of human development, focusing on the practical questions of “when” and “how.”
Sociology Based Publications

Integrating Survey and Ethnographic Methods for Systematic

Pearce, L. D. (2002)

Sociological Methodology, 32(1): 103-132

How the salience of research findings can be enhanced by combining survey and ethnographic methods to draw insight from anomalous cases. Using examples from a research project examining the influence of religion on childbearing preferences in Nepal, the author illustrates how survey data can facilitate the selection of ethnographic informants and how semistructured interviews with these deviant cases leads to improved theory, measures, and methods.
Geography Based Publications

Community through the eyes of children: blending child-centered research and qualitative geovisulization

Jung, Jin-Kyu (2014)

Community is an ambiguous concept, and the meanings of community as a subject of study have received a great deal of attention across various disciplines. This paper discusses how children's diverse meanings of community shape and are shaped by the social, cultural, and physical environments of their everyday lives. To explore these meanings I combine principles of child-centered research and qualitative geovisualization into a research methodology. I demonstrate that this integration displays the transformative nature of qualitative analysis and visualization to support interpretive analysis of various forms of qualitative and spatial data together, and offers us a hybrid methodological framework for gaining insights into the diverse meanings of community held by the children. The main case study is drawn from a multi-year research collaboration called the Children's Urban Geography (ChUG), in which I participated along with children who lived in a relatively poor but emerging multi-cultural Hispanic neighborhood in Buffalo, NY.
Education Based Publications

Entertainment Venue Visiting and Commercial Sex in China

Lin, C. Lieber, E. (2010)

International Journal of Sexual Health

Entertainment venues in China play an important role in the sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV epidemic. Most previous studies have focused on sex workers working in entertainment venues, but little is known about their clients. This study investigated the perceptions and behavior of the patrons visiting entertainment venues. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 male market vendors who visited entertainment venues at least once in the past 3 months in an eastern city in China. Information about their risky behavior, attitude toward commercial sex, and STD/HIV prevention approaches was collected. Saunas, karaoke bars, and massage centers are the most frequently visited entertainment venues.
Education Based Publications

Interobserver Agreement, Reliability, and Generalizability of Data Collected in Observational Studies

Mitchell, Sandra K. (1979)

Psychological Bulletin, 86(2): 376-390

Research in developmental and educational psychology has come to rely less on conventional psychometric tests and more on records of behavior made by human observers in natural and quasi-natural settings. Discusses reliability and generalizability in terms of coefficients that reflect the "quality" of data, what defines quality data, and how reports of agreement are insufficient.
41-50 of 100