Dedoose Publications

PUBLICATIONS

Dedoose has been field-tested and journal-proven by leading academic institutions and market researchers worldwide. Thousands of prominent researchers across the US and abroad have benefited from early versions of Dedoose in their qualitative and mixed methods work and have laid an outstanding publication and report trail along the way.

Education Based Publications

Pragmatism and the Choice of Research Strategy

Tashakkori, Abbas & Teddlie, Charles (1998)

A. Tashakkori & C. Teddlie, Mixed Methodology: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, pp. 3-19.

Introduces and traces the history of the methodological paradigm wars and brings readers up to the state of affairs (albeit, 1998). Discuss the ‘warring’ positions and the evolution of thinking regarding pragmatism and the development of mixed methods approaches to social science research.
Medical Based Publications

The health perspectives of Australian adolescents from same-sex parent families: a mixed methods study

S. R. Crouch, E. Waters, R. McNair, J. Power (2014)

Research involving adolescents from same-sex parent families provides an important contribution to the evidence base on their health, well-being and the impact of stigma. To date reports on the perspectives of adolescents with same-sex attracted parents have been limited. This study aimed to describe the multidimensional experiences of physical, mental and social well-being of adolescents living in this context. A mixed methods study of adolescents with same-sex attracted parents comprising of an adolescent-report survey of 10- to 17-year-olds and family interviews with adolescents and their parents. Data were collected in 2012 and 2013 as part of the Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families. The findings from qualitative interviews with seven adolescents and responses to an open-ended survey question (n = 16) suggest four themes: perceptions of normality, positive concepts of health, spheres of life (including family, friends and community) and avoiding negativity. The quantitative sample of adolescents with same-sex attracted parents (n = 35) reported higher scores than population normative data on the dimensions general health and family activities within the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) as well as higher on the peer problems scale on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Perceived stigma correlates with lower health and well-being overall. Positive health outcomes are informed by the ways adolescents conceptualize health and how they construct their spheres of life. Peer relationships, and community perspectives of same-sex families, inform perceived stigma and its correlation with poorer health and well-being. Although adolescents see their families as essentially normal they are negatively affected by external societal stigma.
Medical Based Publications

Codebook Development for Team-Based Qualitative Analysis

MacQueen, Kathleen M., McLellan, Eleanor, Kay, Kelly, & Milstein Bobby (1998)

Cultural Anthropology Methods, 10(2): 31-36

One of the key elements in qualitative data analysis is the systematic coding of text (Strauss and Corbin, 1990; Miles and Huberman 1994:56). Codes are the building blocks for theory or model building and the foundation on which the analyst’s arguments rest. Implicitly or explicitly, they embody the assumptions underlying the analysis. Given the context of the interdisciplinary nature of research at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), we have sought to develop explicit guidelines for all aspects of qualitative data analysis, including codebook development. On the one hand, we must often explain basic methods such as this in clear terms to a wide range of scientists who have little or no experience with qualitative research and who may express a deep skepticism of the validity of our results. On the other, our codebook development strategy must be responsive to the teamwork approach that typifies the projects we undertake at CDC, where coding is generally done by two or more persons who may be located at widely dispersed sites. We generally use multiple coders so that we can assess the reliability and validity of the coded data through intercoder agreement measures (e.g., Carey et al. 1996) and, for some projects, as the only reasonable way to handle the sheer volume of data generated. The standardized structure and dynamic process used in our codebook development strategy reflects these concerns. This paper describes (1) how a structured codebook provides a stable frame for the dynamic analysis of textual data; (2) how specific codebook features can improve intercoder agreement among multiple researchers; and (3) the value of team-based codebook development and coding. Origins of the Codebook Format Our codebook format evolved over the course of several years and a variety of projects. The conceptual origins took shape in 1993 during work on the CDC-funded Prevention of HIV in Women and Infants Project (WIDP) (Cotton et al. 1998), which generated approximately 600 transcribed semistructured interviews. One research question pursued was whether women’s narratives about their own heterosexual behavior could help us understand general processes of change in condom use behavior (Milstein et al. 1998). The researchers decided to use the processes of change (POC) constructs from the Transtheoretical Model (Prochaska 1984; DiClemente and Prochaska 1985) as a framework for the text analysis. However, the validity of the POC constructs for condom-use behavior was unknown, and a credible and rigorous text coding strategy was needed to establish their applicability and relevance for this context. To do this, the analysts had to synthesize all that was known about each POC construct, define what it was, what it was not, and, most importantly, learn how to recognize one in natural language. Several years earlier, O’Connell (1989) had confronted a similar problem while examining POCs in transcripts of psychotherapy sessions. Recognizing that "coding processes of change often requires that the coder infer from the statement and its context what the intention of the speaker was," O’Connell (1989:106) developed a coding manual that included a section for each code titled "Differentiating (blank) from Other Processes." Milstein and colleagues used O’Connell’s "differentiation" section in a modified format in their analysis of condom behavior change narratives. They conceptualized the "differentiation" component as "exclusion criteria," which complemented the standard code definitions (which then became known as "inclusion criteria"). To facilitate on-line coding with the software program Tally (Bowyer 1991; Trotter 1993), components were added for the code mnemonic and a brief definition, as well as illustrative examples. Thus, the final version of the analysis codebook contained five parts: the code mnemonic, a brief definition, a full definition of inclusion criteria, a full definition of exclusion criteria to explain how the code differed from others, and example passages that illustrated how the code concept might appear in natural language. During the code application phase, information in each of these sections was supplemented and clarified (often with citations and detailed descriptions of earlier work), but the basic structure of the codebook guidelines remained stable.
Medical Based Publications

"I speak a different dialect": Teen explanatory models of difference and disability

Daley, Tamara, & Weisner, Thomas S. (2003)

Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 17(1): 25-48

After eras of “blaming” parents for their children’s disabilities and relying on biomedical labels as both correct and sufficient to explain and name various conditions, research and practice today recognize the significance of the meaning and understanding of disabilities held by family members and children themselves. Elicited explanatory models from adolescents with varied cognitive disabilities and delay to better understand their personal experiences.
Education Based Publications

Validity and Reliability of Qualitative Data Analysis: Interobserver Agreement in Reconstructing Interpretative Frames

Moret, Margriet, Reuzel, Rob, Van Der Wilt, Gert J. & Grin, John (2007)

Field Methods, 19(1): 24-39

Many authors have discussed criteria for assessing the quality of qualitative and mixed methods studies in the social sciences. However, relatively few have presented the results of using criteria for validity of qualitative studies. We investigated the quality of reconstructing interpretative frames, a method for analyzing interview transcripts. The aim of this method is to describe a person's perspective, distinguishing between perceived problem definitions, proposed solutions, empirical background theories, and normative preferences. Based on this description, one should be able to estimate this person's cooperation on implementing specific changes in his or her practice. In this article, we assessed the interobserver reliability of this analytical method as an indicator of its rigor. Six analysts reconstructed interpretative frames on the basis of verbatim transcripts of three interviews. The analysts agreed only moderately about the issues identified and which problems should be prioritized. However, they showed remarkable unanimity as to the estimates of the respondents' cooperation on proposed solutions.
Medical Based Publications

Reliability in Coding Open-Ended Data: Lessons Learned from HIV Behavioral Research

Hruschka, D. J., Schwartz, D., St. John, D. C., Picone-Decaro, E., Jenkins, R. A., & Carey, J. W. (2004)

Field Methods, 16(3): 307-331

Great discussion and illustration of issues and strategy for establishing reliability in inter-rater coding. Intercoder reliability is a measure of agreement among multiple coders for how they apply codes to text data. Intercoder reliability can be used as a proxy for the validity of constructs that emerge from the data.
Education Based Publications

Developing Data Analysis

Silverman, David (2005)

Doing Qualitative Research, 2nd Edition (pp. 171-187)

Provides a step-by-step guide to all the questions students ask when beginning their first research project. Silverman demonstrates how to learn the craft of qualitative research by applying knowledge about different methods to actual data. He provides practical advice on key issues such as defining ‘originality’ and narrowing down a topic, keeping a research diary and writing a research report, and presenting research to different audiences.
Education Based Publications

Barriers to Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research

Bryman, A. (2007)

Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(1): 8-22

This article is concerned with the possibility that the development of mixed methods research is being hindered by the tendency that has been observed by some researchers for quantitative and qualitative findings either not to be integrated or to be integrated to only a limited extent. It examines findings from 20 interviews with U.K. social researchers, all of whom are practitioners of mixed methods research. From these interviews, a wide variety of possible barriers to integrating mixed methods findings are presented. Challenges to integrating mixed methods data and strategy for writing mixed methods research articles.
Education Based Publications

A Systems Approach to Qualitative Data Management and Analysis

MacQueen, Kathleen M. & Milstein, Bobby (1999)

Field Methods, 11(1): 27-39

Introduces and illustrates a systematic approach to qualitative data management from a database architecture perspective. Discusses four main types of information collected in qualitative research: information about primary sources, information from primary sources, secondary information generated by coders, and information about the coders and how quantitative approaches can be used to evaluate qualitative analysis.
Education Based Publications

Moving Up vs. Moving Out: Neighborhood Effects in Housing Mobility Programs

Briggs, Xavier (1997)

Harvard University Press

This article suggests ways to better design, conduct, and interpret evaluations of the effects of housing mobility programs on participants, with emphasis on how to isolate neighborhood effects. It reviews earlier critiques of neighbor-hood effects research and discusses the key assumptions of housing mobility programs—about the benefits of affluent neighbors, the spatial organization of opportunity for the urban poor, and the meanings of "neighborhood" to resi-dents, researchers, and policy makers.
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