Dedoose Publications

PUBLICATIONS

Dedoose has been field-tested and journal-proven by leading academic institutions and market researchers worldwide. Thousands of prominent researchers across the US and abroad have benefited from early versions of Dedoose in their qualitative and mixed methods work and have laid an outstanding publication and report trail along the way.

Policy Based Publications

Making it Work: Low-Wage Employment, Family Life, and Child Development

Yoshikawa, Hiro, Weisner, Thomas S., & Lowe, Edward (2006)

New York: Russell Sage Foundation

Low-skilled women in the 1990s took widely different paths in trying to support their children. Some held good jobs with growth potential, some cycled in and out of low-paying jobs, some worked part time, and others stayed out of the labor force entirely. Scholars have closely analyzed the economic consequences of these varied trajectories, but little qualitative or mixed method research has focused on the consequences of a mother’s career path on her children’s development. Making It Work, edited by Hirokazu Yoshikawa, Thomas Weisner, and Edward Lowe, looks past the economic statistics to illustrate how different employment trajectories affect the social and emotional lives of poor women and their children. Making It Work examines Milwaukee’s New Hope program, an experiment testing the effectiveness of an anti-poverty initiative that provided health and child care subsidies, wage supplements, and other services to full-time low-wage workers. Employing parent surveys, teacher reports, child assessment measures, ethnographic studies, and state administrative records, Making It Work provides a detailed picture of how a mother’s work trajectory affects her, her family, and her children’s school performance, social behavior, and expectations for the future. Rashmita Mistry and Edward D. Lowe find that increases in a mother’s income were linked to higher school performance in her children. Without large financial worries, mothers gained extra confidence in their ability to parent, which translated into better test scores and higher teacher appraisals for their children. JoAnn Hsueh finds that the children of women with erratic work schedules and non-standard hours—conditions endemic to the low-skilled labor market—exhibited higher levels of anxiety and depression. Conversely, Noemi Enchautegui-de-Jesus, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, and Vonnie McLoyd discover that better job quality predicted lower levels of acting-out and withdrawal among children. Perhaps most surprisingly, Anna Gassman-Pines, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, and Sandra Nay note that as wages for these workers rose, so did their marriage rates, suggesting that those worried about family values should also be concerned with alleviating poverty in America. It is too simplistic to say that parental work is either “good” or “bad” for children. Making It Work gives a nuanced view of how job quality, flexibility, and wages are of the utmost importance for the well-being of low-income parents and children.Looks past the economic statistics to illustrate how different employment trajectories affect the social and emotional lives of poor women and their children.
Education Based Publications

Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research: How is it Done?

Bryman, Alan (2006)

Qualitative Research, 6(1), 97-113

This article seeks to move beyond typologies of the ways in which quantitative and qualitative research are integrated to an examination of the ways that they are combined in practice. Draws on a content analysis of methods and design from 232 articles using combined methods. Examine and discusses the rationales provide for employing mixed-methods and whether they correspond to actual practice.
Policy Based Publications

Child Care Instability and the Effort to Sustain a Working Daily Routine: Evidence from the New Hope Ethnographic Study of Low-Income Families

Lowe, E. Weisner, T., Geis, S. & Huston, A (2005) Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, In C. Cooper, C. Garcia-Coll, T. Bartko, H. Davis, C. Chatman. (2005)

Hills of Gold. Pp. 121-144 Diverse Pathways Through Middle Childhood

Background Unstable child care arrangements can lead to negative consequences both for parents’ employment and for children’s well-being, particularly among families already struggling with low incomes and variable work schedules. This paper draws upon longitudinal ethnographic information from a sample of 44 working poor families who participated in the New Hope Demonstration, an experimental intervention in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, that provided a monthly earnings supplement, child care vouchers, and health care coverage to low-income parents if the parent worked 30 or more hours a week. The families in this study are representative of a much larger sample of families who participated in the New Hope antipoverty program. The paper examines three questions: (1) How much change and instability in child care arrangements do the families in our sample experience? (2) What features of everyday family life, and the family cultural ecology, are generally associated with change and instability? (3) How do subsidy programs available to these families like New Hope and Wisconsin Works, the state’s welfare reform initiative, promote or reduce stability of child care over time? And how can this best be studied from qualitative and mixed methods perspectives. Key Findings Changing child care arrangements were pervasive, with 84 percent of sample families experiencing a change at least once in the two years of follow-up. Most importantly, between about one-third and one-half of families experienced unplanned changes in child care arrangements during the follow-up period. Shifts in the family cultural ecology were the most important influence on stability in child care, including, in order of importance: – stability of work and job circumstances or in the household’s social supports; – assistance and stability of informal care providers; – the adequacy of material and social resources, including child care subsidies; – consensus or conflict among family members regarding child care; – the congruence between available child care and parents’ beliefs, goals, and values. Families’ descriptions of the difficulties they face meeting current child care subsidy rules and administrative hurdles suggest that modifications in the subsidy systems could render them more effective in assisting low-income working families. Conclusions and Implications The level of child care instability observed in this paper raises concerns. This ethnographic study extends what has been learned from previous research on child care instability by providing insight into the complex underlying reasons that account for the observed high levels of instability. The structure of subsidy policies could help mitigate some of the reasons for unplanned child care instability uncovered here. For example, child care support tied exclusively to work or income levels can lead to more instability since work is unstable in many cases. Establishing a family’s child care eligibility annually (as opposed to basing eligibility on current work effort, for example) would ensure that a child could remain in the same program for longer periods of time. These periods could be tied to school year cycles, for instance. Based on how parents talked about child care subsidies and how they responded to the current structure of the system, it is likely that, if child care supports were more stable and certain, the benefits of using child care subsidies would increase and the families’ ability to sustain their routines would improve.
Education Based Publications

Mixed Methods Sampling - A Typology with Examples

Teddlie, Charles, & Yu, Fen (2007)

Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(1): 77-100

Discusses mixed methods sampling techniques in creative and effective ways.
Education Based Publications

Measures of Interobserver Agreement: Calculation Formulas and Distribution Effects

House, Alvin E., House, Betty J., & Campbell, Martha B. (1981)

Calculation formulas and distribution effects Journal of Behavioral Assessment, 3(1): 37-57

Discusses issues, types, and calculations for inter-rater reliability. Seventeen measures of association for observer reliability (interobserver agreement) are reviewed and computational forumals are given in a common notational system. An empirical comparison of 10 of these measures is made over a range of potential reliability check results.
Education Based Publications

Managing Data in CAQDAS

Fielding, Nigel & Lee, Ray M. (1998)

Chapter 4 in Fielding & Lee, Computer Analysis and Qualitative Research, pp. 86-118

from COMPUTER ASSISTED QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS SOFTWARE: A PRACTICAL PERSPECTIVE FOR APPLIED RESEARCH, JOSEPH B. BAUGH, ANNE SABER HALLCOM, and MARILYN E. HARRIS Computer assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS) holds a chequered reputation to date in academia, but can be useful to develop performance metrics in the field of corporate social and environmental responsibility and other areas of contemporary business. Proponents of using CAQDAS cite its ability to save time and effort in data management by extending the ability of the researcher to organize, track and manage data. Opponents decry the lack of rigor and robustness in the resultant analyses. Research reveals that these opinions tend to be divided by “the personal biography and the philosophical stance of the analyst” (Catterall & Maclaran, 1998, p. 207), as well as “age, computer literacy, and experience as a qualitative researcher” (Mangabeira, Lee & Fielding, 2004, p. 170). A more recent article (Atherton & Elsmore 2007) discussed the continuing debate on CAQDAS in qualitative research: The two perspectives both indicate that CAQDAS should be used with care and consideration; in ways that explicitly demonstrate a “fit” between the ethos and philosophical perspective(s) underpinning a research study, on the one hand, and the means of ordering and manipulating the data within CAQDAS on the other. (p. 75) Despite the ongoing literary debate on the merits of CAQDAS, the use of computer-aided qualitative data analysis has become acceptable to most qualitative researchers (Lee & Esterhuizen; Morison & Moir, 1998; Robson, 2002). However, writers advise that researchers avoid the trap of letting the software control the data analysis (Catterall & Maclaran, 1998). Morison and Moir counseled that CAQDAS is merely one tool in the qualitative data analysis toolbox. No tool should replace the researcher's capacity to think through the data and develop his or her emergent conclusions (Atherton & Elsmore, 2007). On the other hand, Morison and Moir among others (e.g., Blank, 2004; Catterall & Maclaran, 1998; Mangabeira et al., 2004) found the use of qualitative data analysis software can also free up significant amounts of time formerly used in data management and encoding allowing the researcher to spend more time in deeper and richer data evaluation. Qualitative research studies to develop performance metrics can create huge amounts of raw data (Miles & Huberman, 1994; Robson, 2002). Organizing, tracking, encoding, and managing the data are not trivial tasks and the effort should not be underestimated by the applied researcher. Two methodologies exist to handle these activities and manage the data during the data analysis phase. The first methodology is a manual process, which must be done at times to avoid missing critical evidence and provide trustworthiness in the process (Malterud, 2001), while the second methodology indicates the use of technology for managing the data and avoid being overwhelmed by the sheer amount of raw data (Lee & Esterhuizen, 2000). It is the experience of the authors that some manual processing must be interspersed with CAQDAS. This provides an intimacy with the data which leads to the drawing of credible and defensible conclusions. Thus, a mixed approach that melds manual and automated data analyses seems most appropriate. A basic approach for applying traditional qualitative research methodologies lies in the ability of CAQDAS to support data reduction through the use of a “provisional start list” (Miles & Huberman, 1994, p. 58) of data codes that are often developed manually from the research question. A rise in the use of CAQDAS for applied research and other nonacademic research fields has been identified (Fielding & Lee, 2002). Since CAQDAS is becoming more prevalent in nonacademic researcher populations and can be useful for developing performance metrics for corporate social and environmental responsibility and solving other complex business issues, it seems prudent at this juncture to discuss how to use the software appropriately rather than rehash the argument for or against using CAQDAS. Selection of and training with an appropriate CAQDAS package can help the researcher manage the mountains of data derived from qualitative research data collection methods (Lee & Esterhuizen, 2000).
Education Based Publications

Qualitative Interviewing

Patton, Michael Quinn (1980)

Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, In Michael Quinn Patton, Qualitative Evaluation Methods, pp. 195-263

We interview people to find out from them those things we cannot directly observe. This issue is not whether observational data are more desireable, valid, or meaningful than self-report data. The fact is tahtw e cannot observe everything. We cannot observe felings, thoughts, intentions, behaviors that took place at some previous point in time, situations that preclude the presence of an observer, or how people have organized the world and the meanings they attach to what goes on in the world. We have to ask people questions about those things. Thus, the purpose of interviewing is to allow us to enter into the other person's perspective. Qualitative interviewing begins with the assumption that the perspective of others is meaningful, knowable, and able to be made explicit. We interview to find out what is in and on someone else's mind, to gather their stories. Program evaluation interviews, for example, aim to capture the perspectives of program participants, staff, and others associated with the program. What does the program look and feel like to the people involved? What are their experiences? What thoughts do people knowledgeable about the program have concerning the program? What are their expectations? What changes do participants perceive in themselves as a result of their involvement in the program? It is the responsibility of the evaluator to provide a framework within which people can respond comfortably, accurately, and honestly to these kinds of questions. Evaluations can enhance the use of qualitative data by generating relevant and high quality findings. As Hermann Sudermann said in Es Lebe das Leben I, ‘I know how to listen when clever men are talking. That is the secret of what you8 call my influence.’ Evaluators must learn how to listen when knowledgeable people are talking. That may be the secret of their influence. An evaluator or qualitative or mixed method research interviewer faces the challenge of making it possible for the person being interviewed to bring the interviewer into his or her world. The quality of the information obtained during an interview is largely dependent on the interviewer. This chapter discusses ways of obtaining high-quality information by talking with people who have that information. We’ll be delving into the ‘art of hearing’ (Rubin and Rubin 1995). This chapter presents three different types of interviews. Later sections consider the content of interviews: what questions to ask and how to phrase questions. The chapter ends with a discussion of how to record the responses obtained during interviews. This chapter emphasizes skill and technique as ways of enhancing the quality of interview data, but no less important is a genuine interest in and caring about the perspectives of other people. If what people have to say about the world is generally boring to you, then you will never be a great interviewer. On the other hand, a deep and genuine interest in learning about people is insufficient without disciplined and rigorous inquiry based on skill and technique.
Education Based Publications

Intercoder Reliability for Validating Conclusions Drawn from Open-Ended Interview Data

Kurasaki, Karen S. (2000)

Field Methods, 12(3): 179-194

Intercoder reliability is a measure of agreement among multiple coders for how they apply codes to text data. Intercoder reliability can be used as a proxy for the validity of constructs that emerge from the data. Popular methods for establishing intercoder reliability involve presenting predetermined text segments to coders. Using this approach, researchers run the risk of altering meanings by lifting text from its original context, or making interpretations about the length of codable text. This article describes a set of procedures that was used to develop and assess intercoder reliability with free-flowing text data, in which the coders themselves determined the length of codable text segments. Discusses procedures for developing and assessing intercoder reliability with free-flowing text.
Education Based Publications

Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research

Johnson, R. Burke, Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J., & Turner, Lisa A. (2007)

Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(2), 112-133

Examines the definition of the emerging mixed methods research field. Surveyed major authors in the mixed method literature with regard to definition for the field and key issues that need to be addressed as the field advances. Results show a consensus of mixed methods as an emerging ‘research paradigm’ and a breadth of opinion around definition for the field.
Education Based Publications

Barriers to Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research

Bryman, A. (2007)

Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(1): 8-22

This article is concerned with the possibility that the development of mixed methods research is being hindered by the tendency that has been observed by some researchers for quantitative and qualitative findings either not to be integrated or to be integrated to only a limited extent. It examines findings from 20 interviews with U.K. social researchers, all of whom are practitioners of mixed methods research. From these interviews, a wide variety of possible barriers to integrating mixed methods findings are presented. Challenges to integrating mixed methods data and strategy for writing mixed methods research articles.
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